World Health Organization
 Collaborating Center on
 Pharmaceutical Policy

    Improving Access to and Use of Essential Medicines

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Medicines and Insurance Coverage (MedIC) Initiative



Glossary of Terms Used for Pharmaceuticals and Pharmaceutical Policies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries


WHO Level I and Level II Indicators Methodology to Assess Country Pharmaceutical Situations

To monitor the progress of efforts to improve the global medicines situation, WHO has developed a system of indicators to measure important aspects of country pharmaceutical situations. Level I indicators measure the existence and performance of key national pharmaceutical structures and processes. Level II indicators measure key outcomes of these structures and processes in the areas of access, product quality, and rational use. These indicators can be used to assess progress over time; to compare situations across countries; and to reassess and prioritize efforts based on the results.

Dennis Ross-Degnan, Anita Wagner, and Marsha Pierre-Jacques have been working with Daisy Carandang at WHO Geneva on the development and refinement of the WHO strategy to systematically assess country pharmaceutical situations using Level I and II indicators. Based on results from analyses of 1999 and 2003 indicator data view here, the Level I key informant survey was revised and is now being administered in all WHO member states. Level II assessments now include a pricing survey view here and a household survey view here. The Department of Technical Cooperation on Essential Drugs and Traditional Medicines of WHO Geneva is supporting this work.


Information from the Third International Conference for Improving Use of Medicines, ICIUM2011