World Health Organization
 Collaborating Center on
 Pharmaceutical Policy

    Improving Access to and Use of Essential Medicines

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Medicines and Insurance Coverage (MedIC) Initiative



Glossary of Terms Used for Pharmaceuticals and Pharmaceutical Policies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries


Using Indicators to Measure Country Pharmaceutical Situations

Dennis Ross-Degnan, Marsha Pierre Jacques, and Anita Wagner of the CCPP collaborated with colleagues at WHO in the analyses of the 1999 and 2003 assessments of Level I indicators and of Level II indicator surveys conducted between 2003 and 2004. Data for Level I indicators were provided by national officials in 146 countries. Data to measure Level II indicators were collected in samples of public health facilities, private pharmacies, and warehouses by 26 country teams.

The resulting Fact Book summarizes indicator data within groups of countries classified as low, middle, and high income according to the following eight topics: (1) National medicines policy; (2) Legislation and regulation; (3) Quality control of pharmaceuticals; (4) Medicines financing systems and policies; (5) Public sector medicines supply; (6) Intellectual property rights and patents and local production; (7) Access to essential medicines; and (8) Rational use of medicines. Where comparable data are available from the 1999 Level I indicator survey, the Fact Book describes progress made in country pharmaceutical sector processes between 1999 and 2003. Level II indicators on access, quality, and rational use of medicines are used to assess whether outcome targets in these areas are being achieved. WHO TCM supported this work. The full report is available here.


Information from the Third International Conference for Improving Use of Medicines, ICIUM2011